Category Archives: Evolution and genetics

Evolving as a holobiont

During this past decade, scientists have come to realize the importance of all the bacteria, fungi, and other single-celled microorganisms living in our gastrointestinal (GI) tract. As mentioned before on these GEITP pages, total DNA content of a human includes … Continue reading

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Tracing the “Peopling of the World” (The Great Human Diaspora) through genomics

One of the (less predicted) benefits of The Human Genome Project (that started in Oct 1990) –– was the amount of DNA sequence, and perhaps especially including informative DNA sequence data that could be retrieved from ancient bones uncovered all … Continue reading

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An epigenetic mechanism might be the reason why aerobic glycolysis encourages effector T cell differentiation ??

In oncology, the Warburg effect is the observation that most cancer cells predominantly produce energy by a high rate of glycolysis [process by which glucose is converted to pyruvate plus a proton (H+); the free energy released is used to form the high-energy molecules … Continue reading

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Within the same wave out of Africa (??), Aborigines diverged from Eurasians between 50,000 and 70,000 years ago

For anyone who has visited the Outback (sometimes seen also in cities), you know that Australian Aborigines appear “quite distinct” in appearance––often displaying blue eyes and blonde hair while having brown skin and small stature. They have long been cast … Continue reading

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“Acetylation reader proteins” that link acetylation signaling to genome maintenance and cancer

Heritability is the manifestation of genetic and epigenetic traits. Genetic traits include normal and mutated (alternative) DNA sequences. Epigenetic effects are chromosomal in origin but occur outside the DNA sequence; these include DNA methylation, RNA-interference (RNAi), histone modification, and chromatin … Continue reading

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Emergence of a Homo sapiens-specific autism-related gene family on Chr 16p11.2 CNV susceptibility, having arisen by natural selection

Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates—including more recently the genomes of Homo neaderthalensis and Homo denisoviensis. Not all regions of the … Continue reading

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Fossils of archaic hominins hold amazing secrets to the history of human evolution

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Distribution of H3K4me3/H3K27me3 chromatin in male germ cells of six vertebrate species: evidence as to what specifies animal development

The nomenclature of chromatin containing the H3 family of histones, the amino acid lysine (K), at amino acid residue position 4 (counting from the N-terminus), having three methyl groups added (m3) is abbreviated “H3K4me3”. The attached paper tracks the distribution … Continue reading

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Parent-of-origin-specific signatures of de novo mutations (DNMs)

De novo mutations (DNMs) originating during gametogenesis (when the sperm and oocyte are formed) are an important source of genetic variation. The process of gametogenesis is quite different between males and females. The sperm produced by a 20-year-old male has … Continue reading

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Contrary to expectation, low-frequency and rare genetic variants do NOT contribute significantly to type-2 diabetes risk ??

The reason for continual GEITP interest in multifactorial traits, such as human complex diseases including type-2 diabetes (T2D), is that many environmental-toxicant-caused diseases––as well as at least some adverse drug reactions––also qualify as multifactorial traits (meaning ‘phenotypes having contribution from … Continue reading

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