Category Archives: Evolution and genetics

An archaebacterium that expresses actin protein — a trait thought to be eukaryotie-specific

From time to time, these GEITP pages consider topics on Evolution. In biology, there are six Kingdoms of Life: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals. The first two are prokaryotes (microscopic single-celled organisms having unpaired chromosomes and neither a … Continue reading

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Dual-spindle formation keeps the two parental genomes apart in 1-cell mammalian embryo

Mammalian life begins with fertilization of the egg. Once the egg and sperm have fused, the parental chromosomes need to be combined. It was previously taught that a single microtubule-spindle is responsible for spatially combining the two genomes, and then … Continue reading

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SLE in in leptin transgenic pigs ???

For anyone interested in SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), this is a weird finding, maybe a paper worth investigating….. Symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus are diagnosed in leptin transgenic pigs Junchen Chen, Weiqi Zeng, Weirong Pan, Cong Peng, Jianglin Zhang, Juan … Continue reading

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The evolution of genome size in maize

The full-length article about “genome size” [attached left pdf file] was shared with all of GEITP on Aug 31st, and that analysis is re-posted furthest below. The editorial commentary [attached right pdf file] was intended to accompany the full-length article. … Continue reading

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The prehistoric peopling of Southeast Asia

Anatomically modern humans are known to have expanded into Southeast Asia at least 65,000 years ago –– leading to formation of the Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherer tradition. Although Hòabìnhian foragers are considered to be the ancestors of present-day hunter-gatherers from mainland Southeast … Continue reading

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A protestor’s change-of-heart sheds light on the public’s reservations about genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

This [attached] article is a 1-page summary of a new book review (by José R. Dinneny, Dept of Biology at Stanford Univ). In Seeds of Science, author Mark Lynas has written this book in hopes of improving the “contentious debate … Continue reading

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The transition (during evolution) — from single cells to multicellular life

From time to time, these GEITP pages examine EVOLUTION –– especially from the standpoint of “how do an organism’s genes respond to the adverse environment at that moment in time, and mutations/insertions/deletions/inversions/duplications (i.e. DNA-sequence alterations) occur, as well as epigenetic … Continue reading

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Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) reveals polygenic architecture of earlobe attachment

I can still remember the day when one of my sons (and he was certainly no more than 6 years old) was deep in thought and then asked, “How many genes do you think it would take to make a … Continue reading

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Maternal age elicits phenotypic variation in the Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode)

For years, on these pages of “Gene-Environment Interactions,” we’ve pointed out that the genotype [dependent on: DNA alterations (i.e. genetics), epigenetic changes (i.e. DNA-methylation, RNA-interference, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling), adverse environmental effects, and even obscure (poorly understood) transgenerational effects] reflects … Continue reading

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Ancient evolutionary selection for alleles at a GDF5 enhancer that influences human height and osteoarthritis risk

In terms of gene-environment interactions, we’ve shared many examples in which the environment (diet, climate, and geographic region) has exerted strong selective forces, over time, to change the phenotype (trait). In the case of the attached study (and editorial), the … Continue reading

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