Monthly Archives: August 2016

Parent-of-origin-specific signatures of de novo mutations (DNMs)

De novo mutations (DNMs) originating during gametogenesis (when the sperm and oocyte are formed) are an important source of genetic variation. The process of gametogenesis is quite different between males and females. The sperm produced by a 20-year-old male has … Continue reading

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Contrary to expectation, low-frequency and rare genetic variants do NOT contribute significantly to type-2 diabetes risk ??

The reason for continual GEITP interest in multifactorial traits, such as human complex diseases including type-2 diabetes (T2D), is that many environmental-toxicant-caused diseases––as well as at least some adverse drug reactions––also qualify as multifactorial traits (meaning ‘phenotypes having contribution from … Continue reading

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Innate Immunity and Asthma Risk in Amish and Hutterite in Farm Children

The Amish and Hutterites are U.S. agricultural populations whose lifestyles are remarkably similar in many respects but whose farming practices are distinct. For example, Amish follow traditional farming practices whereas Hutterites use industrialized farming practices. The two populations also show … Continue reading

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Apparent transfer of mitochondia from one cell type to another in central nervous system, after a stroke

I had never before heard of such a thing as “exchange of mitochondria between different cell types in the central nervous system (CNS).” However, Davis et al. (2o14) had published a report indicating that neurons can release DAMAGED mitochondria and … Continue reading

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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype profoundly influences mitochondrial proteostasis, ROS generation, insulin signaling, obesity, and aging parameters

The maternally inherited DNA that is found in cytoplasmic organelles called mitochondria encodes the central proteins involved in energy production––the main function of this organelle. Yet, it has been assumed that the extraordinar­ily high sequence variability of mitochon­drial DNA is … Continue reading

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Interest in ‘global warming’ is waning, because global cooling continues to occur

The Antarctic Peninsula (western shore of Antarctica) is a triangular, mountainous land with a coastline of dramatic, calving glaciers and rich wildlife, and it exemplifies the popular image of Antarctica––although this regions covers only 1% of the entire Antarctic continent. … Continue reading

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A 78-Kilobase (kb) interchromosomal DNA insertion within the CMTX3 locus appears to be a cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy

This topic is not directly associated with “gene-environment interactions”, … but rather shows what COOL THINGS can be discovered about Mendelian diseases by performing next-generation sequencing (NGS) or whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technology to understand serious clinical congenitcal syndromes––in this case, … Continue reading

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GxE Interactions in Stress Response Contribute Additively to a Genotype-Environment Interaction

The “cellular stress response“ is a general term in cell biology, covering a wide range of molecular changes that cells undergo in response to environmental stressors––including extremes of temperature, exposure to toxicants, and mechanical damage. The various processes involved in cellular stress responses serve the adaptive purpose of … Continue reading

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Evidence for intrinsic bioluminescence has evolved independently at least 27 times !!

Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon––with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world’s oceans. Evolutionary is a remarkable process and “an event” can be initiated multiple times. For example, in Africa some of the early hominid species or … Continue reading

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Imputing phenotypes for genome-wide association studies

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been successful in detecting genotype variants (DNA base alterations) correlated with phenotypes (traits) of clinical interest that represent gradients (e.g. complex diseases such as schizophrenia or type-2 diabetes, as well as body mass index, height, … Continue reading

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