Monthly Archives: June 2016

How mutational events in genomes of butterflies and moths cause ADAPTATION to environmental signals

These two fascinating articles [below] elucidate some mechanisms that help explain how an organism’s genome can be “forced” by strong selective environmental pressures into changing an organism’s outward appearance (heritable trait) to something that will benefit survival of the species … Continue reading

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Synchronized mitochondrial and cytosolic translation programs controlled by the nuclear genome (gDNA)

Furthermore, authors found that the cytosolic translation processes control mitochondrial translation uni-directionally––i.e. the nuclear genome coordinates mitochondrial, and cytosolic, translation to orchestrate the timely synthesis of OXPHOS complexes, representing an unappreciated regulatory layer that shapes the mitochondrial proteome. This interesting … Continue reading

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How the pluripotency Tx factor NANOG opens (remodels) chromatin

Both genetics (DNA, genes) and epigenetics (DNA-methylation, RNA-interference, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling) are the factors (along with environmental effects) that contribute to inheritance of most multifactorial traits. There are assays for detecting and studying variants/mutations in DNA (genome-wide association … Continue reading

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Bradford Hill’s influential criteria: A guide for separating causation from association

For those not familiar with the Bradford Hill Criteria, 50 years ago these nine criteria were published: 1: Strength of Association. The stronger the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable, the less likely it is that the … Continue reading

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Synchronized mitochondrial and cytosolic translation programs controlled by the nuclear genome (gDNA)

Both nuclear genes (in genomic DNA; gDNA), and genes (mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) in organelles called mitochondria, are involved in assembly of the cellular energy-producing machinery. RNA-translation programs that coordinate the two systems have now been identified. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is … Continue reading

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Citation impact of a Journal now only lasts for a 2-year time window !!

Below is another insightful “Presidential Message” from Steven McKnight. Scientific journals, these days, get scored for Citation Impact, by means of a metric that considers only two years subsequent to the publication of their papers. Papers that get cited after … Continue reading

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Discovery of a eukaryote not having mitochondria !!!

Every living organism is categorized as either a prokaryote (having single chromosomes) or eukaryote (having pairs of chromosomes). Eukaryotes also contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane, and its DNA is bound together by proteins (histones) into chromosomes. Eukaryotic cells are … Continue reading

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Ancient origins of multicellular life: existed as early in evlution as 1.56 billion years ago (BYA) !!!

Every living organism is categorized as either a prokaryote (having single chromosomes) or eukaryote (having pairs of chromosomes). Eukaryotes also contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane, and its DNA is bound together by proteins (histones) into chromosomes. Eukaryotic cells also … Continue reading

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Polymorphism in a lincRNA is associated with 2-fold increased risk of pneumococcal bacteremia in Kenyan children

When the human genome was first sequenced, it was difficult for many to believe that ‘only 1.5 percent of the 3 billion bases of a haploid genome is actually responsible for protein-coding genes’. Early on, the term “junk DNA” was … Continue reading

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Resistance of microbes to antibiotics: Great example of evolution happening all around us, constantly

The lay editorial [below] … about “superbugs developing resistance to one newly developed antibiotic after another” … is a good example of gene-environment interactions. Just as cancer cells respond to (environmental) pressures and become resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs in order … Continue reading

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